Looking After healthy Babies...

Thursday, January 29, 2009

Babies health care, (Part Two)

Q: What do you recommend doing about cradle cap — those scaly patches that babies sometimes develop in their hair or on their face?
A: Cradle cap is a form of seborrhea. It is a skin condition caused by some of the sweat glands in the scalp overworking. And even though it is called cradle cap, it can occur on the eyebrows and behind the ears, as well as on the scalp. It can become a problem for two reasons: first, sometimes parents see a flake and think it is dry skin, so they put a lot of lotion on, which makes it worse and leads to more flakes. Second, sometimes cradle cap gets worse because parents are not washing their baby's hair frequently enough. I often hear parents say that since the soft spot is not closed, it is dangerous to wash the baby's head, which is not true. If your baby has cradle cap, try washing his or her hair every other day with baby shampoo. If it doesn't get better, try rubbing a little baby oil or mineral oil into the scalp to loosen the flakes. Then use a comb to gently get out some of the flakes, followed by a wash with baby shampoo. The important thing about using lotion or baby oil is that you need to wash it out within 24 hours. Otherwise, it will make the cradle cap worse. If none of this works, you can try adult dandruff shampoo, and if that doesn't work, you can talk to your pediatrician. Cradle cap isn't usually painful for the baby, although sometimes a parent tries to scrape it off and causes a little bleeding, which can be irritating.

Q: Since baby skin is so sensitive, do you need to use a special detergent when washing their clothes?
A: I'm not sure that's really necessary, although there is certainly nothing wrong with those special detergents. For new clothes, I always recommend that you wash them and put them through the rinse cycle twice. If you do that, it doesn't matter what type of detergent you use because the clothes will have been rinsed thoroughly. I do recommend that you wash all new clothes before you put them on your baby.

Q: It seems like every baby encounters a diaper rash at some point. What can you do to minimize those?
A: The common causes of diaper rash are irritation of the skin or a yeast infection. Try to avoid diaper rash altogether by changing baby's diaper frequently. The more often you change their diaper, the less likely diaper rash becomes. I recently heard a dermatologist say that babies rarely get a diaper rash if their diapers are changed eight or more times a day. That will help avoid a rash caused by irritation. Once you notice the area getting irritated, there are a few things you can do — besides frequent diaper changes — to help reduce irritation. First, avoid using baby wipes and instead use soap and water — baby wipes often have alcohol, which irritates the skin. You might even want to carry a wet washcloth in your diaper bag instead of wipes if your baby is starting to get a rash. Also, let the diaper area air-dry as often as possible. Finally, if the area is getting red, try any of the over-the-counter diaper rash products that contain zinc oxide. Just make sure you are using them properly. They are a thick paste that is meant to be slathered on to form a barrier for moisture. Do not wipe the paste off with every diaper change. If you do, the area will just become more irritated. Just wipe the wetness of the diaper and stool off with water and then apply more paste. You want to leave it on for at least 24 hours. After two or three days, the rash should go away. If not, see your pediatrician. It may be a yeast infection, which can be treated with a prescription medication.

Q: Let's move on to fingernails. What's the best way to keep baby's nails short and snag-free?
A: It is recommended that they either be filed down with a gentle nail file or clipped with manicure scissors. Try not to cut them too close to the skin, and try not to use nail clippers. Even though they're really careful, I've seen too many parents clip off the tip of their baby's finger, which isn't surprising considering that babies are usually pretty squirmy. I think filing with a gentle nail file is really the way to go.

Q: Part of keeping baby comfortable ties in to how you bundle up your little bundle of joy. What do parents need to know about how to dress their baby?
A: Dress your baby the same way you dress yourself. If it's winter, you want to make sure that baby has an undershirt on and his head is covered. If the house is warm, he might just need the undershirt and one other layer of clothing. If not, he may need more. In summer, one layer of light clothing will do. Whatever level of dress would keep you at a comfortable temperature is the proper level of dress for your baby. They don't feel cold more than adults, so they don't need to be bundled. One thing I see a lot of parents do is put a big old wool blanket over their baby's head when they go out in winter, thinking that will help keep the wind and cold off of baby. I'm more worried about suffocation when I see that. If you must cover baby's head, use a light receiving blanket. And be sure to check baby frequently to make sure he or she is OK.

Q: What about footwear? Do high-end shoes help baby's feet, or will a cheap pair of kicks do the trick?
A: A lot of parents ask if babies need to wear shoes at all. The answer is yes, and the reason is that shoes help keep baby's feet warm and help prevent them from injuring themselves if they step on something sharp. But hard-bottomed shoes are no better than soft shoes and in fact they can be dangerous because they can be slippery on wood or linoleum floors. So rather than spending $30 or $50 on a pair of shoes, just buy an inexpensive pair of sneakers that have a good grip and will keep baby's feet covered. They don't need special arches or ankle support; you just need to make sure they fit well and are not pinching your baby's toes. And when baby is learning to walk, it may actually help for him or her to be barefoot. Wearing shoes can sometimes dull the sensations that help babies learn to keep their balance.

Thursday, January 8, 2009

Babies health care, (Part One)

Baby health care
Basic baby health care can present some unique challenges that you may not know how to tackle; here experts handle some of the questions to help you understand baby care, bathing, and grooming. From treating baby acne to clipping nails, we've found some answers to help give your babies excellent care. Pediatrician Lynn Smitherman, M.D., recently about basic baby care. Here is what the assistant professor of pediatrics at Detroit's Wayne State University had to say:

Q: Because many parents — especially first timers — are obsessed with germs and cleanliness, bath time might seem like a crucial part of baby's hygiene. But how often does a baby really need to be bathed?
A: Infants don't really need to be bathed more than two to three times per week. Parents should always wash their baby's face and diaper area really well, but the rest of the body —arms, legs, tummy and back — doesn't really get that dirty. Once babies start crawling or toddling, it is important that their hands are kept clean, and if they are going barefoot, that their feet are clean. That means bathing baby more frequently — maybe every other day. Be careful, especially in the winter, not to overdo the washing because the soap and water can dry out their skin. By 1 year of age, they will need to be bathed even more frequently, perhaps daily, because they can get really messy.

Q: When it comes to baby's first bath, a lot of parents head for the kitchen sink, which is at a comfortable height and is small enough to seem manageable. Do you need to do anything special if you're going to use the sink?
A: You do want to wash out the sink really well. Just make sure there is no food or dirt left over from the last time you washed dishes. And, if you use harsh cleansers on your sink, be sure to wash it really well with soap and water and then rinse it one last time with hot water to get rid of any residue. If there's residue left over, it can cause irritation to baby's skin. Another option is bathing baby in an infant bathtub. Most keep baby at an angle so they're not lying flat, helping to keep water from pooling up in the diaper area, which is where you need to concentrate your cleaning anyhow.

Q: What about temperature? How do you know if it's too hot or too cold?
A: The best way to check the temperature of the water is with your elbow or forearm, since those are more sensitive than your fingers. You want the water to be a little warmer than lukewarm — just warm enough to feel comfortable. And keep in mind that the naval cord has to be completely off and healed — this happens around week three — before you submerse baby entirely. Until then, you can make do with a sponge bath.

Q: Babies have a reputation for silky-smooth skin, but in reality their skin is often rough, bumpy and dry. What do parents need to know about skin care for their infant?
A: First, they should know that when babies are first born, they go through a very natural process of peeling skin. Many parents get concerned because they think the skin is peeling because it's dry. It's not. I tell parents to try to imagine what would happen to their skin if they sat in a bathtub full of water for nine months and then had to adapt to the dry air. Skin peeling right after birth is a natural process, and it doesn't need any special treatment. In terms of washing, it's best to use a very mild soap. Even though there are a lot of products advertised, I find that unscented Dove soap works best. It is very mild, which is good because some children have reactions to the perfumes and dyes used in some soap. This will help keep their skin from getting irritated.

Q: While we're talking about skin, what about baby acne? If baby has pimples, is it time to break out the Clearasil?
A: Baby acne — little pimples, usually on the face — usually shows up within a few days of life and goes away without treatment. These pimples may come and go for the first month or so, but they're nothing to worry about. Some babies also get eczema, which is a dry skin condition that usually runs in the family. The best way to treat that is to keep the skin moisturized, using a very mild, unscented lotion such as Vaseline or baby lotion. But if your baby has very sensitive skin, you may have to use a special lotion like Lubriderm or Cetaphil. If that doesn't help, have your pediatrician check it out to make sure it isn't something else.

Q: Do you recommend using baby powder or talcum powder?
A: Nowadays, we're trying to get away from using powder altogether because if it is inhaled it can cause lung damage. So we try to discourage the use of baby, or talcum, powder. But if you choose to use it, don't sprinkle the powder directly on the baby, because the risk of breathing it in is very high. Stand away from baby and put some in your hand and then rub it on baby, keeping it away from the face.
Will continue in (Part two)

Wednesday, May 28, 2008

Language Adquisition

The Thirteenth Month:
-Vocabulary of 3 - 4 words in addition to "mama"and "dada".
-Say "tata"for thank you.
-Gives toy on request or gesture.
-Looks in appropiate place when asked. "where is daddy? -ball,- kitty"etc?
-May use sounds to indicate specific objects that are understood by the parents.
-Responds to own name.
-Jabbers with expresions.
-Understands gestures.
-Obeys comand: "Give it to me"
-Attempts new words.
-Has begun to understand the name of people, objects, and animals that are important to him.
-Will listen for 3 minutes or so to rhymes and jingles.
-Comes when beckoned.
-Has learned to respond to speech by acts.
-Indicates wants other than by crying.

The Fourteenth Month:
-Likes rhymes and jingles.
-Indicates wants in some other way than by crying.
-Is putting all kinds of sounds together.
-Brings coat to indicate desire to be taken out.
-May bring parent a cd to have it played.
-Tries hard to make self understood.
-Amuses self with vocal play.
-Attempts to say any word he or she hears.
-Knows through words or signs names of objects she or he uses: chair, cup, teddy bear, kitty, doll etc.
-Knows names of family members.
-Speaking vocabulary of 3 - 5 words.
-Repeats sounds of words without indication of understanding the meaning.

The Fifteenth Month:-Speaking vocabulary of 4 - 6 words including names.
-May also say "there"and "bye-bye".
-Uses jargon and gestures.
-Says "ta-ta"or equivalent for thank you.
-Points to shoes or clothes on command.
-Vocalizes and gestures to indicate wants.
-Points to familliar persons, toys and animals on request.
-Follows simple commands: "Give me the ball", "Get the teddy bear"etc.
-Combines jargon and words in conversation.
-Asks for objects by pointing.
-Understands such directions as "no", "come", "show me", "look".
-Delights in dogs and often says "bow-wow".
-Recognizes names of major body parts.
-Identifies pictures of a few named objects or the objects themselves by pointing or vocalizing.
-Can respond to a few key words and phrases.
-Points to one named body part.

The Sixteenth Month:
-Uses 6 - 7 clear words.
-Brings a familiar object from another room upon request.
-Points and gestures to indicate desires and call attention to events.
-Responds to "Give me that"when accompanied by gestures.
Indicates wants assertively; will use one word to make want known; e.g "Üp".
-Combines 2 different words.
-Points to one named body part.
-Most toddlers at this age do no like having a whole story read to them; they prefer to pick out and point to pictures or listen to adult talk about pictures.
-Responds to verbal directions, but must still be managed mostly by actions.
-Interested in watching children's shows on tv, cartoons and singing commercials.

The Seventeenth Month:
-Long, babbled conversations with some clear words.
-Enjoys picture books.
-Points to one named body part.
-Says 6 words in addition to "Mama"and "dada".
-Ability to imitate words become more precise.
-Words used rather than gestures to express some wants and needs.
-Understands more words than able to say, but even this understanding is extremely limited.
-Combines 2 different words.
-Extensive vocalization and echoing.

The Eighteeth Month:
-Follows one step direction.
-Can point to own body part; hair, eyes, nose, mouth, on request.
-Asks for some wants by naming object; milk, cookie etc.
-Attempts to sign.
-Refers to self by name.
-Gets coat or hat and says "bye bye".
-Enjoys songs as öld Mc Donald had a farm".
-Imitates simple sounds on request.
-Identifies objects by pointing.
-Names or points to familiar pictures in a book.
-Speaking vocabulary of about 10 words, including names.
-Understands simple questions.
-Uses 2 word phrases, "telegraphic" versions of adult sentence (and, at, the, are lacking)
-Favorite words may be "all gone" "thank you" "bye bye" öh my" All of which register completions.
-May hum spontaneously.
-Is now on the threshold of speech.
-"No"is chief word.
-Chatters in imitation of conversation, verbally or nonverbally.
-Enjoys playing the question - and- answer game with parent.

The Nineteenth Month:
-Touches 3 or more body parts or items of clothing on command.
-Still much bubbling, but now of several syllabes with intricate entonations.
-Speaking vocabulary of more than 10 words but less than 50.
-A favourite game is attaching a name to a thing (labeling)
likes to be read to.
-Responds appropriately to requests for bodily action.
-Points to most pictures of familiar objects named by parents.
-Uses speech as a means of securing action from another person, usually the mother.
-Beginning to respond to speech by speech; the remark of another person evokes his or her spoken response.
-Combines 2 different words.
-Responds to "Where is your nose?" by correctly indicating nose; also to "Where are your eyes?".

The Twentieth Month:-Speaking vocabulary of 12, 15, or more words.
-Is learning to label actions or qualities: up when he or she wants to be picked up, or ON when she or he wants the light on.
-Enjoys hearing nursery rhymes.
-Attempts to talk in sentences, combines 2 different words.
-Points to several named body parts.
-Constantly asks "What is that?"is discovering that everything has a name.
-Is beginning to use rudimentary questioning as a substitute for physical, nonlinguistic behavior.
-Enjoys playing a simple lotto game with parent.

The Twenty First Month:-Speaking vocabulary of 20 or more words.
-Joins 2 words ("All gone"etc.)
-Uses word combinations.
-Echoes 2 or more last words.
-Names 3 pictures of common objects.
-Listens to short rhymes with interesting sounds, especially when they are accompanied by actions or pictures.
-Likes to have lilting rhymes sung.
-Enjoys tactile books.
-Needs supervision while looking at books because often tears them at this age.
-Spontaneous humming or singing of syllabes.
-Imitates 2 or 3 word sentence.
-Understands some personal pronouns; can distinguish "Give it to her", "Give it to him".
-Tries to follow directions.
-Can point to 5 body parts.

The Twenty Second Month:
-Can point to 5 body parts of self or doll.
-Asks for things at table by name.
-Enjoys listening to simple stories.
-Uses simple 1 or 2 words questions to secure the names of objects or persons in his or her enviroment.
-Combines 2 words in speech.
-In response to "where is your month?"correctly indicates either by pointing to or opening mouth.
-Is interested in sound and repetition (as in book, Ask Mr. Bear)
-Calls all women and men mommies and daddies.
-Echoes adults words and inflections.

The Twenty Third Month:
-Speaking vocabulary of 20 clear words.
-Ask for food when hungry and water when thirsty.
-Enjoys hearing rhymes in Mother Goose book, etc.
-Is substituting words for some physical acts.
-Knows 3 to 5 body parts.
-Understand more words than able to use.
-Has learned to form some sentences of 2 words, but still relies on gestures, facial expressions, and total body movement, as well as grunts, squeals, and shrieks for communication.
-Answer "What is your name"? "What does the doggy say?" "What does the kitty say?".
-Can name familiar objects; ball, car, chair, bed, baby etc.
-Increase in communicative behavior and interest in language.
-Discards jargon.

The Twenty Four Month:-Can name almost everything she or he has daily contact with at home or on walks.
-Can associate names with most familiar objects.
-Understand and ask for "another", "more".
-Shows and imitates names for hair, hands, feet, nose, eyes, mouth, shoes.
-Actively imitates words.
-Expressive vocabulary of 50 or more words.
- Listens to and enjoys simple stories.
-Responds to: "Show me a dog" "Show me a hat" etc.
-Names 3 or more pictures in a book.
-Echoes adult's words and inflections.
-Is beginning to discover that everything has a name.
-May be able to give first and last names.

Thursday, May 22, 2008

Sleeping pattern in babies

As a rule, an infant sleeps a lot, but as he gets older he will develop a sleeping pattern. Regularity in his sleeping as well as in his eating and playing habits is most important. The baby who is fed his meals at the same hours is more likely to fall asleep at the same time than the baby whose routine is interrupted for one reason or another.

Gradually baby will stay awake a little longer at each feeding, and soon will discover the joys of sociability. Usually babies have their own "play hour"late in the afternoon; then they will create another in the morning. At 6 months, they may sleep 12 hours at night, and 3 to 5 hours during the day. By the time he is a year old, the average baby takes two comparatively short naps during the day, and sleeps a good 12 hours at night.

It is important to realize that babies vary in the amount of sleep they need. Your baby may be an energetic, sociable type who gets along fine on much less sleep than a more placid, dreamy type of child.
During the first year do not be concerned about how much sleep your baby gets. If his sleeping conditions are good, he will take as much sleep as he needs. If however, he appears to be irritable when not getting much sleep, or on the other hand if he seems to be drowsy and sleepy most of the time, your doctor may suggest a change in his feeding or improvement in the stimulation being provided.

Never give the baby medicine to make him sleep. Provide him with good sleeping conditions including a comfortable room temperature of 21 - 22 C (69.8 - 71.6 F) especially for the first few weeks. As he becomes older, the room may be cooler, provided he is sleeping and well covered. Do not excite him before going to bed. If you hear him talking to himself and wiggling around after you put him down, do not worry; he has just decided to play a little longer, and will go to sleep in due time. One should avoid the tendency to allow an infant to get over stimulated and over fatigued, thereby exhausted before he gets a chance to go to sleep.

Wednesday, May 21, 2008

Toilet Habits in a baby

A baby may have 3 or 4 bowel movements a day. Some babies have only one movement every 2 or 3 days. It is not the frecuency or even the regularity that matters, it is the consistency of the stool. It should be yellow or brownish and soft. If the movement is hard, take steps to relieve constipation before the child becomes antagonistic to bowel movement. If baby is on formula your health consellor may suggest a change, specially in the kind and amount of sugar. Give him more water and, depending on his age, more vegetables and fruits, such as pureed cooked prunes. Do not become worried if you notice changes in the color and consistency of the stool when you start baby on solid foods. (When the baby starts to eat solid food there may be something call transitional poo -heces- the baby can stay without soil his diaper for over a week and this is normal, he doesn't feel anything, he is not fuzzy or anything, if it goes for more than 10 days or if he cries a lot you must take him to the doctor)

Concious bowel and bladder control is not well developed until far into the second or even the third year. It is impossible to "train" a child under one year in the use of the toilet. Trying to observe the baby's rhythm and putting him on the pot at the right time does not help the toilet training of the baby as much as training the mother to anticipate the movement. Effective training begins at a time when muscle and nerve control is being stablished, usually in the early months of the second year. At first a warmed potty is used, and later the toilet. Never leave him more than 5 minutes, and if, as often happens you take him off the toilet whereupon he promptly soils his diaper, do not make any fuss. Never show you are disappointed, but give praise if he succeds.

Bladder control is slow and may not come before the child is between 2 and 2 1/2, although many children continue to wet their beds at night for even longer.

To help in the formation of good toilet habits, parents should not "start" training a very young baby, and they should always attend to his bowel movement in a casual and friendly manner.

Wednesday, May 14, 2008

Gross and fine motor development from 13 to 24 month

It is very important to recognize what a toodler should be doing at a certain age, like his of her motor skills month by month, so if there is something missing we must take the baby or toodler to an specialist and start an early intervention that can help him to achieve his goals in life. Like I wrote about the first 12 months now I'm going to explain a little about the second 12 months.

The thirteen month:
Gross motor:
-Stoops to pick up an object from floor while holding on with one hand.
-Climbs on a low ledge or step.
-Backs downs stairs and slides down from one step to the next.
-Dislikes all forms of restraint.
-Can stand alone without support for at least 5 seconds.
-Sits down from a free standing position.
-Moves to rhythms.
-Walks in a side-step pattern along furniture.

Fine motor:
-Can grasp 2 cubes in one hand.
-Uses index finger to point.
-Removes small objects from a cup.
-Drops toys and watches them fall.
-Builds tower of 2 cubes.
-Puts 3 or more cubes in cup.
-neat pincer grasp of raisin, using thumb and index finger.
-Pokes, bangs, pulls, turns and twists everything within reach.

The fourteen month;
Gross motor:
-Stands alone.
-Kneels on floor or chair.
-Crawls over low barrier.
-Creeps like a bear, hands and soles of both feet in contact with floor.
-Able to start and stop when walking, with equidistant alternation of feet.
-Stoops and recovers toys from floor.

Fine motor:
-Can pick up and hold 2 small objects in one hand (cubes, spools)
-Can hold 4 cubes in hands at one time.
-Piles 2-3 cubes.
-Voluntarily releases and goes after object.
-Reaches for object by smooth, continuous movement with no spatial error.

The fifteen month:
Gross Motor:
-Climbs upstairs on hands and knees.
-Sits on a small chairs for short periods.
-Walks a few steps sideways and backward.
-Picks up object from a standing position and flings it.
-Can climb on chairs, sofas, tables.
-May climb out of crib, high chair or stroller.
-Has discarted creeping.
-Is ceaselessly active- starting, stopping, starting again, climbing and clambering.
-Uses rapid "running-like"walk.
-Throws ball standing or sitting: extends arm at elbow joint.

Fine Motor:
-Puts a pullet in a bottle and then pours it out.
-Can open a small, hinged box.
-Tries to turn doorknob.
-Wants to hold and carry something in aech hand.

The sixteen month:
Gross motor:
-Trots about well; rarely falls.
-Can walk sideways (does so while pulling a pull toy)
-Hurls ball without falling.
-Tries to take steps on a walking board.
-Climbs and descends stairs with help.
-Attempts to kick a ball, but steps on the ball instead.
-Stands on right foot with help.
-Activaly uses arms, legs, and all parts of the body.
-Tries to walk on tiptoe.
-Squats down smoothly.
-Seats self on a chair.
-Recovers standing position after stooping.

Fine motor:
-Builds tower of 2-3 cubes.
-Turns pages of a book a few at a time.
-Scribbles in imitation.
-Can put round block in formboard.
-puts beads in box.

The seventeeth month:
Gross motor:
-Stoops and recovers.
-Tries to stand on a walking board.
-Likes to lug, tug, and drag things.
-Phisically venturesome.
-Can walk upstairs with one hand held.
-Rejects baby carriage.
-Can stand on right or left foot, holding on.
-Constantly testing own strength -how big a box she or he can pick up or push, etc.

Fine motor:
-Builds tower of 3-4 cubes.
-Begins to show hand preference.
-Has difficulty in coordinating hands and feet.
-Hands not agile at wrists.

The eighteen month:
Gross motor:
-Onset of creeping backward downstairs.
-Picks up toy from floor without falling.
-Moves chairs to cabinet and tries to climb.
-Tries to climb out of crib.
-Walks fast; seldom falls.
-Can climb into adult chair and seat self by turning around.
-Uses whole- arm movement in ball play.
-Walks with one foot on walking board.
-Jumps off floor with both feet.
-Walks into ball; not able yet to make definite kicking motion.

Fine motor:
-Dumps raisin from bottle spontaneously.
-Turns pages of a book, 2 or 3 at once.
-Shows hand preference.
-Builds a tower of 3-4 cubes.
-Scribbles a circular stroke.
-Turns knob of radio or tv.

The nineteen month:
Gross motor:
-Walks up and down stairs, with help.
-Squats from standing position tp pick objects up from floor.
-Walks with one foot on 2"wide walking board, one foot on and one foot off.
-Can pick large ball on ground without stepping on the ball.
-Climbs up onto everything.
-Likes to move to music.
-Runs without falling too frequently.
-Can stand on either foot, holding on.
-Pushes, pulls, throws, and carries objects while walking.
-Walks sideways without crossing feet.

Fine motor:
-Fully developed grasp, prehension, and release.
-Builds tower of 3-4 cubes.
-Holds 2 objects in one hand.
-Holds container with one hand, releases small object into container with one hand, and then dumps out.

The twentieth month:
Groos motor:
-Jumps forward.
-Walks up and down stairs, one hand held.
-Seats self on a small chair by sliding onto it.
-Hands from bar grasping with hands.
-Kicks ball forward.
-Picks up object from floor without falling.
-Pushes and pulls around floor large toys, boxes, etc.

Fine motor:
-Makes tower of 4-5 cubes.
-Can throw a small rubber ball.
-Fits related objects together appropriately by releasing, pressing, turning (ring onto pole, peg into hole, nestling etc.)
_Can put lid on oblong box.

The twenty-first month:
Gross motor:
-Walks up stairs, holding rail with both feet on one step.
-Walks down stairs, one hand held.
-Gets onto and down from adult chair unaided.
-Kicks large ball in forward direction.
-Squats in play.
-Walks with one foot on walking board.
-Stands on either foot, holding on.
-Loves to jump, run, throw, and climb.
-Rhythmic response to music with whole body.
-Throws ball overhand.
-Jumps in place.

Fine motor:
-Makes tower of 5-6 cubes.
-Can fold a piece of paper once imitatively.
-Uses one hand more than the other.

The twenty-second month:
Gross motor:
-Experiments with various kinds of large-muscle activities involving thrust or acceleration.
-Jumps with both feet off the bottom step or staircase.
-Goes quite easily from standing to running.
-Walks up stairs and down stairs, holding on, both feet on each step.
-Pedals small tricycle.
-Pushes and pulls large toys, boxes, etc. , around floor.
-Can quickly alternate between sitting and standing.
-Can kick a large ball without falling.

Fine motor:
-Builds tower of 6 or more cubes.
-Is beginning to learn to put pop-it beads together.
Can string several large beads.

The twenty-third month:
Gross Motor:
-Can seat self at table.
-Can throw a ball into a basket.
-Walks up and down stairs alone, both feet on one step at a time, holding onto railing.
-Bands at waist to pick up something off floor without falling.
-Tries to stand on tiptoe imitatively.
-Runs fairly well.
-Throws object overhand instead of tossing.
-Usually runs when moving from one place to another; runs rather than walks.
-Squats on floor.
-Jumps in place.
-Pedals small tricycle.
-Climbs out of crib.
-Stands on walking board with both feet.

Fine motor:
-Can make a train of 3 or more cubes.
-Strings beads together.
-A little more adept at joining pop-it beads together.
-Builds tower of 6 or more cubes.

The twenty-four month:
Gross Motor:
-Visually monitors walking, watching placement of feet in order to be able to deal with obstacles in path by avoiding them.
-Runs, but generally lacks ability to start efficiently or stop quickly.
-Jumps crudely with 2 foot takeoff.
-Walking rhythm stabilizes and becomes even.
-Goes up and down stairs alone without alternating feet.
-Can walk appoximately on line.
-Likes to walk on low walls with one hand held.
-Can walk a few steps on tiptoe.
-Can be trusted alone on stairs.
-Can walk backwards 10 feet.
-Can quickly alternate between sitting and standing.
-Tries to balance self on either foot, not yet succesfully.
-Is sturdy on feet; less likely to fall.
-Still geared to gross-motor activity.

Fine motor:
-Turns pages of a book, one at a time.
-Manipulates more freely with one hand; alternates from one hand to the other.
-Has fully developed right or left handedness.
-Increased smoothness of coordination in fine motor movements.

Thursday, May 8, 2008


The first of baby's primary teeth appear any time from 5 months to 10 months of age, although there are cases when thet appear as early as 4 months and as late as 12 months. The first to appear are usually the two lower front ones, followed by the two upper front teeth. To see the order of they show up, see the graphic below.
There are 20 primary teeth, all of which are generally through by about 2 1/2 years. Over the years they will be replaced by the permanent teeth.

The primary teeth have all began to form in the baby's jaw long before birth. The buds of permanent teeth have also began to form. To assist in the development of both, the baby's diet during his first year of life must be adecuate, containing essential mineral and vitaminis.
Normally a baby is not severely upset when he is teething though he may be a little irritable and not so interesting in food because his gum are sore. Symptoms as cough, fever or diarrhea are thought to be the result of teething but this not known to be the cause. Any baby who is still at this time should be seen by a member of the health care team.
When baby is about 5 months old you can give him a hard crust or a baby biscuit to chew on (not the sweet kind) He may also like to chew on a (safe) teething ring of hard rubber or plastic even if he has no teeth. This will help to harden his gums and exercise his jaw muscles. Watch that he does not chew any wood objects finished with paint containing lead.

Dental care:
Form the beginning care is needed to maintain good teeth; proper nutrition is important in their development. One of the causes of teeth decay is the formation of acids in the mouth by bacteria which act upon the sweet food substances lodged on the teeth. Even the first teeth should be cleaned after meals with a soft brush or cloth. Caries can develop in baby's teeth if he sucks at a bottle of sweetened liquid (including formula) for a long period of time, for example, as he falls to sleep. because of the very serious effects on baby's teeth, do not start him on the habit of sucking on sweetened liquids, as a bed time pacifier.
If you are living in an area where the community water supply is fluoridated, your child will have a good chance of having fewer teeth cavities.

Dental problems:
The decay of a primary tooth may result in its loss before the corresponding permanent tooth is ready to come through. When this happen, the tooth beside the gap move forward and the permanent tooth, when it comes, is crowded out of position, or even locked in the jaw. This is one of the reasons care should be taken of the primary teeth. In addition, this care aids in speech development, food chewing, appearence, and in the prevention of tooth decay and infection which cause pain and ill health.
A few babies are born with teeth present in the mouth. In some cases they are the primary teeth and require care as mentioned before, while others are known as super numeraries; your dentist can advise on the care and perhaps removal of these teeth.